The Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park (TNBNW), farming communities in forest villages, and the animals within them are often involved in conflicts over space usage.
In 2014, the people of Tulabolo Village took the boundary of Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park (TNBNW) to the Regional Representative Council (DPRD) building in Bone Bolango, Gorontalo. They revoked the forest boundary, which had been in their plantations and yards.
Lion Linggula (53) remembers how angry they were at the time. He was one of the figures who led the massive protest. Most of the protesters were residents of the TNBNW forest buffer zone.
"The border of the area is like a tombstone of the community's suffering. Suddenly it was in their gardens and backyards," Lion recalls.
The incident was the tip of the iceberg of a series of conflicts between residents and the TNBNW Center, the entity in charge of the forest area. For decades, mutual claims of land ownership have failed to find common ground.
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